As far as “big data” solutions go, Hive is probably one of the more recognizable names. Hive basically offers the end user an abstraction layer to run “SQL like” queries as MapReduce jobs across data that they have in HDFS. Concretely, say you had several hundred million rows of data and you wanted to count the number of unique IDs Hive would let you do that. One of the issues with Hadoop and by proxy Hive is that it’s notably difficult to setup a cluster to try things out. Tools like Whirr exist to make things easier they’re, a bit rough around the edges and in my experience hit up against “version hell”. One alternative that I’m surprised isn’t more popular is using Amazon’s Elastic Map Reduce to bootstrap a Hadoop cluster to experiment with.

Fire up the cluster

The first thing you’ll need to do is fire up an EMR cluster from the AWS backend. It’s mostly just point and click but the settings I used were:

  • Termination protection? No
  • Logging? Disabled
  • Debugging? Off since no logging
  • Tags – None
  • AMI Version: 2.4.2 (latest)
  • Applications to be installed:
  • Hive
  • Pig
  • Hardware Configuration:
  • One m1.small for the master
  • Two m1.small for the cores

The “security and access” section is important, you need to select an existing key pair that you have access to so that you can SSH into your master node to use the Hive CLI client.

Then finally, under Steps since you’re not specifying any pre-determined steps make sure you mark “Auto-terminate” as “No” so that the cluster doesn’t terminate immediately after it boots.

Click “Create Cluster” and you’re off to the races.

Pull some data, and load HDFS

Once the cluster launches, you’ll see a dashboard screen with a bunch of information about the cluster including the public DNS address for the “Master”. SSH into this machine using the user “hadoop” and whatever key you launched the cluster with:

Once you’re in, you’ll want to grab some data to play with. I pulled down Wikipedia Page View data since it’s just a bunch of gzipped text files which are perfect for Hive. You can pull down a chunk of files using wget, be aware though that the small EC2s don’t have much storage so you’ll need to keep an eye on your disk space.

Once you have some data (grab a few GB), the next step is to push it over to HDFS, Hadoop’s distributed filesystem. As an aside, Amazon EMR is tightly integrated with Amazon S3 so if you already have a dataset in S3 you can copy directly from S3 to HDFS. Anyway, to push your files to HDFS just run:

Build some tables, query some data!

And finally, it’s time to query some of the pageview data using Hive. The first step is to let Hive know about your data and what format it’s stored in. To do this, you need to create an external table that points to the location of the files that you just pushed to HDFS. Start the Hive client by running “hive” and then do the following:

Now select some data from your newly created table!

Pretty sweet huh? Now feel free to run any arbitrary query against the data. Note: since we used m1.small EC2s the performance of Hive/Hadoop is going to be pretty abysmal. But hey, give it a shot:

Anyway, don’t forget to tear down the cluster once you’re done. As always, let me know if you run into any issues!

Posted In: Big Data

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We’ve been using Hive a bit lately to help clients tackle some of their data needs and without a doubt one of the most powerful features is Hive’s SerDe functionality. Taking a step back, Hive is an open source Apache project that lets you run “SQL Like” queries using Hadoop on data that you have in HDFS. It’s a lot of moving pieces but what it fundamentally comes down to is that Hive will let you run what look like SQL queries across the text files that you have in HDFS. A typical use case would be using Hive to run ad-hoc queries across web server (like nginx) logs. Want to a breakdown of response times by frontend web server? Hive would let you do that.


SerDe is actually short for Serialize/Deserialize and its the mechanism that Hive uses to make sense of your text files in HDFS. Lets take a typical nginx log line:

Now the magic comes in how Hive uses a SerDe to translate a line like that into something that’s queryable. This is contrived but lets assume that for some reason we’re interested in querying on the client IP address and the request size of each log line. So we’d be interested in creating a table that looks like:

Turns out, Hive makes this particularly easy. You’d end up using the RegexSerDe to match a regular expression and then extract the two fields you’re interested in.

A custom one

The next step after extraction is to do some transformation during the extraction stage and this is where the custom SerDe comes in. For example, lets say that you wanted to geocode the client’s IP address and also convert your dates into Unix timestamps. So your table would be something like:

Your custom SerDe would let you do exactly this. You’d be able to use something like the MaxMind database to geocode your IP addresses and then use some extra Java to convert your timestamps.

Unfortunately, there doesn’t seem to be too much documentation on how to actually write a custom class so here’s a couple of tidbits I’ve picked up:

  • It looks like at some point the SerDe class was refactored so depending on what Hive version you’re using you’ll need to extend a different class. On Hive 0.11 the class you’ll want to extend is “org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.SerDe”
  • You’ll need to include a couple of JARs in order to get the class to build. I had to include commons-logging-1.0.4.jar, hadoop-0.20.1-core.jar, hive-contrib-0.10.0-cdh4.4.0.jar, hive-exec-0.10.0-cdh4.4.0.jar, junit-4.5.jar
  • As noted above, you need to pull the specific versions of the JARs that you’re going to end up running this SerDe against
  • Make sure you target the right Java JRE version. If your servers are running Java 1.6 and you target 1.7 you end up getting really cryptic error messages.
  • If you create a table using your SerDe, you’ll need to have that JAR available to drop that table

The best way I’ve found to bootstrap this is to create an Eclipse project, include the necessary JARs, and then get the RegExSerDe to build inside the project. Once that works, test the JAR by creating a table using it and then you’ll be able to modify the class from there.

Even with my awful Java, the RegexSerDe class was easy enough to grok and then modify as needed.

Stuck? Need Help?

Drop me a comment or shoot me an email and I’ll do my best to help you out.

Posted In: Big Data

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Last week, I was catching up with a friend of mine and we started chatting about his most recent project. As we were chatting, he made an offhand comment about how some of the business guys on the team love to refer to what they are working on as a “big data” play, even though it really wasn’t. This stuck with me, since because of the vague definitions around “big data”, it’s easy to shoe horn problems into a “big data” play. Because of this, I think its worth taking a step back and discussing what big data really is and what tools are available to work with it.

It’s all just data

At the end of the day, data is data. It doesn’t really matter if its stored in a CSV text file, a MySQL database, or a NoSQL datastore like Cassandra or MongoDB. Typically though, web applications tend to use a relational database like MySQL or Postgres to persist data. Relational databases store data in a series of tables which are in turn arranged as a series of rows and columns. As an abstraction, think of a series of Excel worksheets which can have links between the rows of each sheet.

For most applications, this works out fine, the database ends up managing say a few thousand customer accounts, each with a few hundred thousand objects associated with them and the total dataset fits conveniently into the server’s RAM. Since the dataset is relatively small, things like retrieving information, updating records, and running ad-hoc analytics queries are all easy to implement and relatively fast. But what happens if your dataset doesn’t fit into memory of even the beefiest of servers? Therein lies the “big data” problem.

Certain applications generate an enormous amount of data on a daily basis. For example, look at Mixpanel, tracking discreet user interactions is going to produce hundreds of thousands of datapoints every day even with just a few clients. With this volume of data, typical relational databases quickly start performing sluggishly and eventually stop being effective entirely. Even simple queries like counting the “# of clicks by user” start to take hours to run, effectively becoming intractable. Although specialized relational databases like Vertica and Oracle 11g do exist to help solve this problem, they’re expensive and proprietery.

Enter the elephant

One of the first companies to publicly discuss their big data strategies was Google in Bigtable: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data which described their BigTable datastorage system. Although a proprietary solution, the research paper was used as the basis for Apache Hadoop, an open source framework for running MapReduce style jobs over large datasets.

At this point, Hadoop has distinguished itself as the most popular open source big data solution with a rich ecosystem of tools and several companies providing professional services and support including Cloudera and Hortonworks. What Hadoop provides is a low level framework for allowing computation jobs to be distributed across several servers within a cluster. This allows tools to split up very large datasets into smaller chunks, distribute computational tasks across the cluster, and finally assemble the result. So with the Hadoop framework in place, you still need specific tools built to leverage the distributed framework.

The toolbox

There are several tools that effectively leverage Hadoop but here are some of my favorites for quickly building out a cluster:

Apache Whirr – Automates deploying, bootstrapping, and configuring a Hadoop cluster. Whirr will save you hours of time because instead of manually starting 4 EC2s and configuring them all you can kickstart a cluster with a single command.

Apache HBase – A column store database that is similar to Google’s original BigTable system. Great for storing billions of records across a Hadoop HDFS file system.

Apache Hive – A datawharehousing solution that allows you to run “SQL like” queries using Hadoop. It also has native support for pulling data out of MySQL, making it a convenient addition to a stack includes MySQL.

Apart from these, there are dozens of other Hadoop powered tools but its impossible to recommend a single silver bullet without knowing the details of your “big data” problem.

Posted In: General

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I apologize for the buzzword heavy title but it was the best I could do. I couldn’t find a good quick start explaining how to get started with Hive so I thought I’d share my experiences.

Anyway, a client of ours came to us needing to analyze a dataset that was about ~200 million rows over 6 months and is currently growing at about 10 million rows a week and increasing. From a reporting standpoint, they were looking to run aggregate counts and group bys over the data and then display the results on charts. Additionally, they were also looking to select subsets of the data and use them later – basically SELECT * FROM table WHERE x AND y AND z.

Obviously, doing the calculations in real time was out of the question so we knew we were looking for a solution that would be easy to use, support the necessary requirements and that would predictably scale with the increasing generation rate of data.

On the surface, MySQL looks like a decent approach but it presents a couple of issues pretty quickly:

  • In order for the SUM, GROUP BY, and COUNT queries to be at all useful the MySQL tables would have to be heavily indexed. Unfortunately, due to the write heavy workload of the app this would mean having to copy data into an indexed MySQL database before running any reports.
  • Even with indexes, MySQL was pretty awful at selecting subsets of the data from a performance perspective.
  • And probably the biggest issue with MySQL is that it doesn’t scale linearly in the sense that if the data is growing at 500 million rows a week you can’t simply “throw more hardware” at it and be done with it.

With requirements in hand we hit the Internet and finally arrived at Hive running on top of Hadoop. Per Wikipedia,

From our perspective, this stack fits our requirements nicely since it doesn’t rely on keeping a second “reporting” MySQL database available, it will handle both sum/count/group by and selecting subets, and probably most importantly it will allow us at least in the near term to scale with the increasing rate of data generation.

“Apache Hadoop is a software framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications under a free license. It enables applications to work with thousands of nodes and petabytes of data. Hadoop was inspired by Google’s MapReduce and Google File System (GFS) papers.”

To grossly over simplify, Hadoop provides a framework that allows you to break up a data intensive task into discrete pieces, run the pieces in a distributed fashion, and then combine the results giving you the results of the completed task. The quintessential example of a task that can be parallelized in this fashion is sorting a *really* big list since the list can be sorted in pieces and then the results can be combined at the end. See Merge Sort

The second piece of the tool chain is Hive. Again via Wikipedia,

“Apache Hive is a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for providing data summarization, query, and analysis.Apache Hive is a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for providing data summarization, query, and analysis.”

Basically, Hive is a tool that leverages the Hadoop framework to provide reporting and query capabilities using a syntax similar to SQL.

That just leaves Sqoop, the app with a funny name and no Wikipedia entry. Sqoop was originally developed by Cloudera and basically serves as an import tool for Hadoop. For my purposes, it allowed me to easily import the data from my MySQL database into Hadoop’s HDFS so I could use it in Hive.

The rest of this post walks you through setting up Hadoop+Hive and analyzing some MySQL data.

Now that you know the players, lets figure out what we’re actually trying to do.

  1. We want to start a Hadoop cluster to use Hive on.
  2. Load our data from a MySQL database into this Hadoop cluster.
  3. Use Hive to run some reports on this data.
  4. Warehouse the results of this data in MySQL so we can graph it (not that exciting).

Starting the cluster

Theres actually one more tool you’ll need to get this to work – Apache Whirr. Whirr is actually really cool, it lets you automatically start cluster services (Hadoop, Voldermont, etc.) at a handful of cloud platforms (AWS, Rackspace, etc.)

NOTE: We exclusively use AWS for our hosting so everything described here is specific to AWS.

Fisrt, download the latest copy of Whirr – http://www.fightrice.com/mirrors/apache//incubator/whirr/ to your local machine. Whirr should work everywhere but these directions will match up against Linux/OSX the best.

The first thing you’ll need is a Whirr configuration file describing the cluster you want to build. Create a file called hadoop.properties and paste in the following:

whirr.instance-templates=1 hadoop-namenode+hadoop-jobtracker,2 hadoop-datanode+hadoop-tasktracker




There isn’t a ton going on in the file but you’ll need to switch out the credential lines for your AWS credentials. Also, you’ll need to double check that the ssh paths are accurate for your account.

The next step, is to actually launch the cluster. To do this run this command – double check the path to your hadoop.properties file is accurate:

./bin/whirr launch-cluster --config hadoop.properties

Just give it a few minutes, you’ll see a bunch of debug info scrolling across your terminal and hopefully a success message once its done. At this point, you’ll have a fully built Hadoop cluster with 3 nodes as described in your properties file ( 1 hadoop-namenode+hadoop-jobtracker,2 hadoop-datanode+hadoop-tasktracker ).

You can see all your nodes by checking out your Whirr cluster directory.

cat ~/.whirr/hadoop/instances

Prepping and loading the cluster

Now that the cluster is up, you’ll need to prep it and then load your data with Sqoop.

One of the most irritating “gotchas” I stumbled across was that Whirr adds the firewall rules necessary for Hadoop to its AWS security group.

Before you do anything, open your EC2 control panel and modify the new Whirr security group (#jcloud-something) so that all of your nodes can connect to each other on port 3306 (MySQL)

The next step is to install mysql-client across the entire cluster since Sqoop uses mysqldump to get at your data. You could manually ssh into every machine but Whirr provides a convenient “run-script” command to do just that.

Create a file called “prepCluster.sh” and put “sudo apt-get -q -y install mysql-client” in it. Then make sure the paths are right and run,

./bin/whirr run-script --script prepCluster.sh --config hadoop.properties

Once its done, you’ll see the aptitude output from all your nodes as they downloaded the MySQL client.

The next step is to install mysql-server, hive, and sqoop on the jobtracker. Doing this is pretty straightforward, look at the .whirr/hadoop/instances file from above and copy the namenode hostname.

Next, ssh in to that machine using your current username as the username. Once you’re in, just run the following to install everything:

sudo apt-get -q -y install sqoop
sudo apt-get -q -y install hadoop-hive
sudo apt-get -q -y install screen

NOTE: You’ll also need the MySQL ConnectorJ library so that Sqoop can connect to MySQL. Download it here and place it in “/usr/lib/sqoop/lib/”

Once everything is done installing, you’ll most likely want to move your MySQL data directories from their default location onto the /mnt partition since it’s much larger. Check out this article for a good walk through. Don’t forget to update AppArmour or MySQL won’t start. Once MySQL is setup, load the data you want to crunch.

Now, you’ll need to use Sqoop to load the data from the MySQL database into Hadoop’s HDFS. While logged into the jobtracker node you can just run the following to do that. You’ll need to swap out the placeholders in the command and change the u/p.

sqoop-import-all-tables --connect jdbc:mysql://[IP of your jobtracker]/[your db_name] --username root --password root --verbose --hive-import

Once it completes, Sqoop will have copied all your MySQL data into Hadoop’s HDFS file system and initialized Hive for you.

Crunching the data

Run “hive” on the jobtracker and you’ll be ready to start crunching your data.

Check out the Hive language manual for more info on exactly what queries you can write.

Once you’ve narrowed down how to write your queries, you can use Hive’s “INSERT OVERWRITE LOCAL DIRECTORY” command to output the results of your query into a local directory.

Then, the next step would be to TAR up these results and use scp to copy the results back to your local machine to analyze or warehouse.

Shutting it down

The final thing you’ll need to do is shut down the cluster. Whirr makes it pretty easy:

./bin/whirr destroy-cluster --config hadoop.properties

Give it a few minutes and Whirr will shutdown the cluster and clean up the EC2 security group as well.

Anyway, hope this walk through proves useful for someone. As always, feedback, questions, and comments are all more than welcome.

Posted In: Amazon AWS, Demo

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For the last few weeks we’ve been working on a project that involved dealing with bills in the US House and Senate. Naturally, I decided it was time to make a word cloud from the frequencies of the words in the bills!

Checkout the final product here.

I decided to use only the bills from the 111th congress (the current one), all the bills (6703 of them) were downloaded from the THOMAS library at http://thomas.loc.gov/home/gpoxmlc111/ The files are XML documents that have the full text of the bills along with some meta data.

Not really to many files but I decided to use Hadoop and try and Map/Reduce the bills to count up the word frequencies. Getting Hadoop to run locally was pretty straightforward – just tell it where JAVA_HOME is and I was off to the races. Fortunately enough, one of the pre-canned examples was a word frequency counter so I decided to modify that for what I wanted.

The example map/reduce was written to process plain text files so I had to modify it to work with the XML documents. What this involved was writing a custom InputFormat class to open each bill, extract the appropriate plain text from the XML, and then pass this back as the “data”. I also modified the word counter to ignore words shorter than 6 characters.

I tested locally with a small subset of bills and everything seemed to be working fine. The trouble started when I tried to bring up Daum’s machine as a slave to my machine. After some finagling and hair pulling I finally got it working. The takeaways were:

  • You can’t run your DataNode on localhost, it needs to be your computer’s hostname to accept connections.
  • Hostnames are important. If you don’t have a DNS server make sure your hostnames are aliased in /etc/hosts
  • If your HDFS set up is showing 100% utilization but you know it isn’t true, try rm’ing the data file and then re-formatting your namenode.
  • If a copy or reduce step fails in distributed mode the error messages are usually really cryptic – check the actual logs.
  • When something throws an exception during a map or reduce operation, the error won’t be reported to STDOUT

Anyway, it was a slightly frustrating but rewarding experience – I even got to code some Java! The visualization of the word frequencies is here.

Might be about time to process one of the Amazon datasets with EC2

Posted In: Demo

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